Difference between revisions of "Fencing Draft:Appendices"

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#Check if a cloak or non-rigid defensive object contains any rigid parts. If it does, remind the opponent that they may not throw it at their opponent.
 
#Check if a cloak or non-rigid defensive object contains any rigid parts. If it does, remind the opponent that they may not throw it at their opponent.
 
 
===Appendix 4: Safety tests===
+
==Appendix 4: Safety tests==
 
Penetration-resistant material, masks and blade flexibility must be tested by an authorised marshal at least every 2 years, separate to inspections at training and events.
 
Penetration-resistant material, masks and blade flexibility must be tested by an authorised marshal at least every 2 years, separate to inspections at training and events.
====Penetration-resistant material====
+
===Penetration-resistant material===
 
Penetration-resistant material is tested using a drop tester that meets SCA standards. The specifications for creating a drop-tester are available in Appendix 3 of the Society Fencing Marshals Handbook.
 
Penetration-resistant material is tested using a drop tester that meets SCA standards. The specifications for creating a drop-tester are available in Appendix 3 of the Society Fencing Marshals Handbook.
 
The drop tester enables marshals to consistently test material by dropping a known weight a known distance, creating a known impact.
 
The drop tester enables marshals to consistently test material by dropping a known weight a known distance, creating a known impact.
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#If the probe does not punch through, check that the clamps are still secure and that the fabric did not slip.
 
#If the probe does not punch through, check that the clamps are still secure and that the fabric did not slip.
 
#If the marshal is satisfied, the material passes.
 
#If the marshal is satisfied, the material passes.
'''Exemptions'''
+
====Exemptions====
 
The following materials are known to pass these tests when new:
 
The following materials are known to pass these tests when new:
 
*4oz (1.60 mm) leather
 
*4oz (1.60 mm) leather
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*chain mail made of welded or riveted steel rings that will not admit a 5/32" (4 mm) diameter probe. Rings no greater than 0.155” (4 mm) in internal diameter made of wire no less than 0.020” (0.5 mm) thick meet this requirement
 
*chain mail made of welded or riveted steel rings that will not admit a 5/32" (4 mm) diameter probe. Rings no greater than 0.155” (4 mm) in internal diameter made of wire no less than 0.020” (0.5 mm) thick meet this requirement
 
These materials only need to be tested at the marshal’s discretion.
 
These materials only need to be tested at the marshal’s discretion.
====Masks====
+
===Masks===
 
The face mesh of a modern fencing mask must be tested using a standard commercial 12kg mask punch tester.
 
The face mesh of a modern fencing mask must be tested using a standard commercial 12kg mask punch tester.
 
[more to come]
 
[more to come]
====Blade flexibility====
+
===Blade flexibility===
 
To test the flexibility of a blade, follow this procedure.
 
To test the flexibility of a blade, follow this procedure.
 
#Clamp or hold the blade on a rigid surface, such as a table, to ensure it doesn’t move at the table end.
 
#Clamp or hold the blade on a rigid surface, such as a table, to ensure it doesn’t move at the table end.
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#For a sword used in Cut and Thrust Combat, the blade must flex at least 12.5mm (1/2”).
 
#For a sword used in Cut and Thrust Combat, the blade must flex at least 12.5mm (1/2”).
 
 
  +
 
===Appendix 5: Authorisations===
 
===Appendix 5: Authorisations===
 
Participants must be authorised to compete in any Fencing Combat event or to serve as a marshal. To be authorised, participants must pass a verbal and practical test to show that they:
 
Participants must be authorised to compete in any Fencing Combat event or to serve as a marshal. To be authorised, participants must pass a verbal and practical test to show that they:

Revision as of 11:29, 5 July 2020

Appendix 1: Rules of the Lists

Note: These Rules of the Lists are copied from the SCA Marshal’s Handbook, as they apply to Fencing, with clarifications in brackets.

  1. Each fighter, recognizing the possibility of physical injury to themselves in such combat, shall assume unto themselves all risk and liability for harm suffered by means of such combat. No fighter shall engage in combat unless and until they have inspected the field of combat and satisfied themselves that it is suitable for combat. Other participants shall likewise recognize the risks involved in their presence on or near the field of combat and shall assume unto themselves the liabilities thereof.
  2. No person shall participate in Official Combat-Related Activities (including armoured combat, period fencing, and combat archery) outside of formal training sessions unless they have been properly authorized under Society and Kingdom procedures.
  3. All combatants must be presented to, and be acceptable to, the Sovereign or [their] representative.
  4. All combatants shall adhere to the appropriate armour and weapons standards of the Society, and to any additional standards of the Kingdom in which the event takes place. The Sovereign may waive the additional Kingdom standards.
  5. The Sovereign or the Marshallate may bar any weapon or armour from use upon the field of combat. Should a warranted Marshal bar any weapon or armour, an appeal may be made to the Sovereign to allow the weapon or armour.
  6. Combatants shall behave in a knightly and chivalrous manner and shall fight according to the appropriate Society and Kingdom Conventions of Combat.
  7. No one may be required to participate in Combat-Related Activities. Any combatant may, without dishonour or penalty, reject any challenge without specifying a reason. A fight in a tournament list is not to be considered a challenge and therefore may be declined and forfeit the bout.
  8. Fighting with real weapons, whether fast or slow, is strictly forbidden at any Society event. This rule does not consider approved weaponry which meets the Society and Kingdom standards for traditional Society combat and/or Society period rapier [fencing] combat, used in the context of mutual sport, to be real weaponry.
  9. No projectile weapons shall be allowed within the Lists of a tournament, nor shall any weapons be thrown. The use of approved projectile weapons for melee, war, or combat archery shall conform to the appropriate Society and Kingdom Conventions of Combat.

Appendix 2: Glossary

Terms related to Fencing

HOLD A call to immediately stop all activity on the field for safety concerns. Any person may call a HOLD Line In melee combat, a minimum of two combatants, on the same side, in contiguous mutual weapons support range.

Terms related to Types of Blows

Thrust Scoring a hit on an opponent by touching them with the front (i.e. head-on cross section) of the point of the blade. Tip Cut Scoring a hit on an opponent by placing the point of the blade upon them and pulling the point across in a line. Draw Cut Scoring a hit on an opponent by placing the edge of the blade upon them opponent and pulling or pushing the edge across their body. Percussive Blow In Cut and Thrust Fencing, scoring a hit on an opponent by cutting with the edge of blade in a single, smooth motion, using controlled force.

Terms related to Acknowledging Blows

Body The body includes the head and entire helmet, the neck, chest, abdomen, back, and the regions on the inner part of the upper arm and the inner thigh extending 10cm down from the armpit and the groin, respectively. Hand The hand, including all fingers, up to and including the wrist. Arm The arm not including the hand or the area defined as part of the body. Upper Leg The upper leg, not including the area defined as part of the body, down to and including the top of the kneecap and the crease at the back of the knee. Lower Leg The foot, lower leg, and knee below the upper leg. Torso The torso includes the chest, abdomen, back, and the regions on the inner part of the upper arm extending 10cm down from the armpit.

Terms related to equipment

Abrasion-resistant material Material that will withstand normal combat stresses (such as being snagged by burr on a metal blade) without tearing. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • broadcloth
  • a single layer of heavy poplin cloth (35% cotton, 65% polyester; "trigger" cloth)
  • track pants
  • opaque cotton, poly-cotton or lycra/spandex mix tights. Nylon pantyhose and cotton gauze shirts are examples of unacceptable materials.

Blunt A protective covering for the tip of a sword or dagger:

  • A blunt can be made of shatter-resistant polymer, rubber or leather.
  • It must have a minimum size of 10mm in any direction that strikes the opponent.
  • Polymer and rubber blunts must be at least 3mm thick between the striking surface and the tip or edge of the blade.
  • Leather blunts must be at least 1.6mm thick.

External Reproductive Organs In this context, external reproductive organs refers to penis and/or testicles.

Hemangioma A collection of blood vessels at the surface of the skin, characterized as a raised red growth. Hemangiomas that bleed more easily than regular skin must be covered by rigid material.

Penetration-resistant material Material that will predictably withstand a puncture as shown by passing a penetration test. (see Appendix 4). The following materials are known to pass these tests when new:

  • four-ounce (1.60 mm) leather
  • four layers of heavy poplin cloth
  • ballistic nylon rated to at least 550 Newtons
  • commercial fencing clothing rated to at least 550 Newtons
  • chain mail made of welded or riveted steel rings that will not admit a 5/32" (4 mm) diameter probe. Rings no greater than 0.155” (4 mm) in internal diameter made of wire no less than 0.020” (0.5 mm) thick meet this requirement

The above materials need only be tested at the marshal’s discretion; all other materials must be tested the first time new gear is used, or if no marshal on the field knows a given piece of gear to have been tested. Under Armour, Spandex, and other similar stretchy materials are not suitable as penetration-resistant materials and must not be included in testing. Kevlar is not an acceptable material, as it degrades rapidly.

Resilient padding Material that compresses under pressure from a thumb but returns to its shape within 3 seconds of the pressure being removed.

Rigid material Material that will not significantly flex, spread apart, or deform under pressure of 12kg applied by a standard mask tester, repeatedly to any single point. Examples of rigid material are:

  • 22 gauge stainless steel (0.8 mm)
  • 20 gauge mild steel (1.0 mm)
  • 16 gauge aluminium, copper, or brass (1.6 mm)
  • one layer of hardened heavy leather (8 ounce, 3.2 mm)

Perforated material that meets this requirement must have holes no larger than 3 mm in any direction, and a spacing of at least 5 mm centre-to-centre.  

Appendix 3: Inspecting a fencer’s equipment

This outlines a basic overview of the key points of an inspection at training or events. The items to check, listed below, are not meant to be comprehensive for every item in the rules. Marshals are encouraged to use their best judgement to conduct any aspect of an inspection more thoroughly. Note: Penetration-resistant material, masks and blade flexibility must be tested at least every 2 years, separate to inspections at events. For more information about these tests see Appendix 4.

Inspecting protective equipment

  1. When inspecting protective equipment, you may not be able to see every part of the equipment. In these cases, ask the fencer about their equipment, to check that they know the rules and believe they are wearing the right equipment.
  2. If a part of the inspection requires you to touch the fencer, for example to check for proper mask fit, ask for and receive their permission before you do so. If the fencer does not agree to the check, they may not pass inspection.

Overall inspection

  1. Check what type of combat the fencer is planning to participate in. Check that they have the appropriate level of protection for that category (for example, the addition of rigid back-of-head protection and resilient padding on elbows and knees for Cut and Thrust Combat).
  2. It may be necessary to ask the combatant what their penetration-resistant clothing is made of—for example, it may be a combination of a doublet and underarm gussets sewn into their undershirt. If you cannot see the undershirt in this scenario, ask them if they’re wearing it.
  3. It may be necessary to ask the fencer to adopt a common combat pose, such as a lunge, to check that there are no substantial gaps in their penetration-resistant clothing.
  4. Check that the fencer is wearing rigid neck protection.
  5. Ask the fencer if they are wearing the appropriate groin protection and rigid protection on any vulnerable body part. It is up to them to know what they need to wear.

Inspecting masks and helms

  1. Check that the materials meet the rigid material standard, and do not have excessive rust or dents that could weaken the material.
  2. If there you are concerned about the face mesh on a fencing mask, it should be tested using a standard commercial 12kg mask punch.
  3. Look inside the mask or helm to check that it has no substantial protrusions, and that there is enough padding or a proper suspension to prevent it from hitting the fencer’s head.
  4. After the fencer puts the mask or helm, check that it fits snugly in a way that should prevent the mask from hitting the fencer’s head or face. You may need to push or pull on the mask or helm to make sure it doesn’t come into contact with the fencer. Tell them what you are going to do as you make these checks.
  5. Check that the mask is secured by a second fastening below the jawline.

Inspecting Gloves

  1. Gloves are to be made of abrasion-resistant material. Check for any significant openings, breaks or cuts that could permit a blade or abrasive cut. Note that when sewing leather, small gaps that are structurally sound may appear at the seams.
  2. Check that there is enough overlap between the gloves and the shirt that there are no gaps. You can ask the fencer to adopt a common fencing pose such as a lunge, to check that there are no gaps when they move.
  3. For Cut and Thrust Combat:
    • check that the fencer’s hand protection (combination of glove and/or sword or defensive object) has enough padding or rigid protection. If their gloves only have padded protection, remind them that they are not allowed to fight with or against a two-handed weapon.
    • Ask the combatant to hold their weapon or defensive object as they would in combat.
    • Check that the combined protection covers the back of the hands, fingers, and 2.5cm above the wrist to protect against percussive cuts from normal and reasonable angles. An appropriate test is: can you see a straight line, approximately 10cm long, into which a sword could cut with the edge on any part of the back of their hands, fingers, or wrist?
    • A shield alone may be considered an equivalent to full hand and wrist protection only if no part of the gloved hand or wrist is within 10 cm of the edge of the shield while it is being used.

Inspecting weapons

Inspecting Bladed Weapons

  1. Inspect the overall weapon.
    • Check that the overall length is within the acceptable range.
    • Check that the weapon is in good repair—that is it doesn’t seem like it will fall apart with a parry.
  2. Inspect the blade
    • Check for nicks that can cut an opponent. You can do this visually or by running a gloved hand along the edges of the blade. Run your hand in both directions but do so lightly—by its very nature a potentially harmful nick can injure you. If the blade has substantial nicks, they will need to be filed or sanded before the weapon can be used.
    • Look down the length of the blade to look for kinks. Weapons with kinks consistent with fatigue cannot be used.
    • Check the flexibility of the blade. If in doubt, check the weapon for flexibility using the flexibility test at Appendix 4.
  3. Inspect the blunt
    • Check the blunt visually for cracks, bulging, or discoloration, or any other signs that the sword is starting to punch through the blunt.
    • Frequently, it isn’t possible to ascertain the internal components of the blunt. For example, if the blunt is made of leather, it may not be possible to tell that the leather is thick enough. Ask the fencer about the construction of the blunt to check that they are familiar with the rules and that their blunt meets the requirements of the rules.
    • If the blunt appears not to meet the requirements, it must be replaced before the weapon can be used.
    • Check that the blunt is unlikely to come off during combat, by pulling on it.
  4. Inspect the quillons, pommel
    • Check that the quillons and pommels do not have sharp or pointed ends.

Inspecting RBGs

  1. Check for any major splinters, nicks, or features that could injure an opponent.
  2. Check the ammunition to ensure it contains no metal parts or fillings.
  3. For long-arm RBGs with a draw length of more than 45cm, check the circumference of the ammunition is at least the same as the draw length. Flatten 2 rubber bands in half and use that to measure against the draw length, as shown in this figure.

Inspecting Spears

  1. Inspect the head
    • For rubber-headed spears, check that the tip is flexible, and returns substantially to its original shape within 3 seconds.
    • For metal-headed spears, follow the inspection methods for a bladed weapon.
    • Check that the head is securely fastened to the haft.
  2. Inspect the haft
    • Check that the haft is made of appropriate material (rattan for rubber-headed spears; wood or rattan for metal-headed spears).
    • Check that the rattan haft is the appropriate diameter (between 28.5mm and 35mm).
    • Check that the spear is the appropriate length (no longer than 275cm for rubber-headed spears, or 244cm for metal-headed spears).
    • Check that the haft does not have dangerous burrs or protrusions.

Inspecting defensive objects

  1. Check for any major splinters, nicks, or features that could injure an opponent.
  2. Check if a cloak or non-rigid defensive object contains any rigid parts. If it does, remind the opponent that they may not throw it at their opponent.

Appendix 4: Safety tests

Penetration-resistant material, masks and blade flexibility must be tested by an authorised marshal at least every 2 years, separate to inspections at training and events.

Penetration-resistant material

Penetration-resistant material is tested using a drop tester that meets SCA standards. The specifications for creating a drop-tester are available in Appendix 3 of the Society Fencing Marshals Handbook. The drop tester enables marshals to consistently test material by dropping a known weight a known distance, creating a known impact. To conduct the test you need all pieces shown in the figure below, including:

  • a guide tube
  • a drop probe
  • a 75mm threaded PVC flange
  • 2 hose clamp
  • a screw driver or nut clamp to tighten the hose clamps.
  1. Use a hard surface. Carpet or grass absorb impact and make the test unreliable.
  2. Set the flange thread side up and lay the test fabric over it.
  3. Fit the first hose clamp over the fabric and flange, and pull the fabric tight as you push the clamp down. Tighten the clamp.
  4. Fit the second clamp below the flange so that it is touching the first. Make sure the fabric is tightly secured.
  5. Insert the probe into the guide tube, lined up to the mark to drop it from.
  6. Place the guide tube vertically in the centre of the fabric.
  7. Drop the probe.
  8. Examine the fabric. If the probe has punched through anything below the top layer of fabric, the material fails.
  9. If the probe does not punch through, check that the clamps are still secure and that the fabric did not slip.
  10. If the marshal is satisfied, the material passes.

Exemptions

The following materials are known to pass these tests when new:

  • 4oz (1.60 mm) leather
  • 4 layers of heavy poplin cloth
  • ballistic nylon rated to at least 550 Newtons
  • commercial fencing clothing rated to at least 550 Newtons
  • chain mail made of welded or riveted steel rings that will not admit a 5/32" (4 mm) diameter probe. Rings no greater than 0.155” (4 mm) in internal diameter made of wire no less than 0.020” (0.5 mm) thick meet this requirement

These materials only need to be tested at the marshal’s discretion.

Masks

The face mesh of a modern fencing mask must be tested using a standard commercial 12kg mask punch tester. [more to come]

Blade flexibility

To test the flexibility of a blade, follow this procedure.

  1. Clamp or hold the blade on a rigid surface, such as a table, to ensure it doesn’t move at the table end.
  2. Hang a 170 gram (6oz) weight 25 mm from the tip.
  3. If the blade of a dagger flexes at least 12/5mm (1/2”), it meets the standard.
  4. For a sword used in Fencing Combat, the blade must flex at least 25mm (1”).
  5. For a sword used in Cut and Thrust Combat, the blade must flex at least 12.5mm (1/2”).

Appendix 5: Authorisations

Participants must be authorised to compete in any Fencing Combat event or to serve as a marshal. To be authorised, participants must pass a verbal and practical test to show that they:

  • understand the rules
  • understand the requirements for protective equipment and weapons
  • can fight safely (for a combat authorisation).

Authorising fencers

There are 4 categories of authorisation for fencing in the Kingdom of Lochac:

  • Fencing Combat
  • Cut and Thrust Fencing Combat
  • Spear
  • Rubber-Band Gun (for non-fencing combatants)

Authorising a fencer revolves around safety—can the fencer behave in a way that they are unlikely to injure themselves or others? Note that special considerations should be made for fencers with unique needs. All fencers must be able to fight safely, but this may take a different form for different people. For example, a person using a wheelchair might not be able to move laterally but might demonstrate the ability to curl defensively rather than stepping out of the way when necessary. Assessing a fencer for safety includes the following: Verbal test

  1. Can the fencer explain what protective equipment they should wear, and why it is required?
  2. Does the fencer understand the different weapons or defensive objects and their safety requirements?
  3. Does the fencer know where to ask questions if they should run into any issues regarding an aspect of SCA combat?

Combat test

  1. Can the fencer advance and retreat safely, moving in a controlled way on uneven ground?
  2. Can the fencer use their weapons safely to:
    • attack their opponent and their weapon?
    • score a good blow using a thrust, cut or percussive cut, without hitting too hard?
    • defend against an attack from their opponent?
  3. Can the fencer fight safely using either hand?
  4. Can the fencer use the different defensive objects safely?
  5. Does the fencer know what to do when a “HOLD” is called?
  6. Can the fencer fight safely:
    • from their knees or sitting?
    • when their opponent is on their knees or sitting?
  7. Can the fencer continue to fight safely when their opponent is advancing rapidly or retreating?
  8. Can the fencer properly acknowledge a good blow?
  9. Can the fencer fight safely against multiple opponents and as part of a team? (Note: this should be tested if it is possible, allowing for the number of available fencers to take part in the authorisation bout.)
  10. Can the fencer perform a ‘kill from behind’ without striking, as described in the melee rules?

Authorising marshals

There are 2 categories of authorised marshals in the Kingdom of Lochac:

  • Fencing Marshals
  • Authorising Fencing Marshals

Fencing Marshals Note: Fencing Marshals do not have to be authorised fencers. Fencing Marshals are responsible for inspecting fencers to ensure that their protective equipment and weapons meet the requirements of these rules. They must be authorised by an Authorising Fencing Marshal. The marshal authorisation should include a verbal test to show that the marshal understands:

  • the rules
  • the requirements for protective equipment and weapons
  • calling a “HOLD” and dealing with safety issues
  • how to escalate matters through the chain of command.

The authorisation should also include a practical test to show that the marshal is able to properly conduct an inspection of a fencer’s protective equipment and weapons. This test may include a scenario where the fencer’s equipment or weapon does not meet requirements. Authorising Fencing Marshals Note: Authorising Fencing Marshals must be authorised fencers. They also must be authorised in a category (for example, Cut and Thrust Combat) to be able to authorise a fencer in that category. Authorising Fencing Marshals are responsible for authorising fencers to take part in combat, or authorising marshals. An Authorising Fencing Marshal must be authorised by 2 Authorising Fencing Marshals. The marshal authorisation should include a verbal test to show that the marshal understands:

  • the rules
  • how to escalate matters through the chain of command.

The authorisation should also include a practical test to show that the marshal is able to properly conduct an authorisation, working with an authorised fencer acting as a candidate. This includes:

  • running the verbal test
  • supervising the combat test
  • deciding whether to pass or fail the ‘candidate’, providing the reasons for doing so
  • recommending a course of action for a ‘candidate’ who fails.

This test may include a scenario where the ‘candidate’ deliberately fights outside the rules to test the marshal’s awareness and understanding. (This must be planned between the 2 combatants, so that safety is maintained).